Minggu, 10 Oktober 2010

Pengenalan Komputer, Sejarah dan Lingkungannya

PENGENALAN KOMPUTER






Komputer merupakan perangkat elektronik yang beroperasi di bawah perintah pengendali yang disimpan di dalam memory dan diproses dan menghasilkan sebuah informasi. Komputer juga dapat diartikan sebagai alat yang dipakai untuk mengolah data menurut prosedur yang telah dirumuskan.

Komputer pada umumnya berbicara mengenai Monitor, CPU, Mouse dan Keyboard. Namun ada juga komputer portable, yang biasanya disebut Laptop.

Monitor atau sering kita sebut Layar tampilan Komputer. Istilah monitor biasanya digambarkan pada sebuah kotak layar yang dapat menampilkan sesuatu dari komputer. Selain itu pula istilah monitor terkadang digambarkan untuk mdnilai kemampuan grafis.




Ada banyak cara untuk menggolongkan monitor.  Tetapi cara yang paling sering digunakan adalah dengan melihat kemampuan dari warna yang dihasilkan monitor tersebut. Minitor dapat di bagi menjadi 3 kelas, diantaranya :
  • Monochrome: Monitor Monokrom biasanya menampilkan dua warna, warna background dan satu lagi adalah warna foreground. Warna tersebut adalah warna hitam dan putih, hijau dan hitam dan Kuning dan hitam.
  • Gray-scale : Gray Scale monitor adalah jenis special dari monitor monochrome yang dapat menampilkan bayangan ungu yang berbeda.
  • Color : Monitor Color adalah monitor berwarna yang memiliki 16 hingga 1 juta warna yang berbeda. Monitor berwarna ini terkadang disebut monitor RGB karena monitor tersebut dapat menerima 3 sinyal yang berbeda, Merah (Red), Hijau (Green) dan Biru(Blue).

CPU atau Central Processing Unit merupakan salah satu komponen utama dan memegang peranan yang sangat penting dalam sistem komputer. CPU bertugas mengolah data berdasarkan instruksi yang ia peroleh.




Bagian CPU terdiri dari:

  • Unit kontrol bertugas mengontrol komputer sehingga terjadi sinkronisasi kerja antar komponen dalam menjalankan fungsi-fungsi operasinya. termasuk dalam tanggung jawab unit kontrol adalah mengambil intruksi-intruksi dari memori utama dan menentukan jenis instruksi tersebut. Bila ada instruksi untuk perhitungan aritmatika atau perbandingan logika, maka unit kendali akan mengirim instruksi tersebut ke ALU. Hasil dari pengolahan data dibawa oleh unit kendali ke memori utama lagi untuk disimpan, dan pada saatnya akan disajikan ke alat output. Dengan demikian tugas dari unit kendali ini adalah:
    • Mengatur dan mengendalikan alat-alat input dan output.
    • Mengambil instruksi-instruksi dari memori utama.
    • Mengambil data dari memori utama (jika diperlukan) untuk diproses.
    • Mengirim instruksi ke ALU bila ada perhitungan aritmatika atau perbandingan logika serta mengawasi kerja dari ALU.
    • Menyimpan hasil proses ke memori utama.



  • Register merupakan alat penyimpanan kecil yang mempunyai kecepatan akses cukup tinggi, yang digunakan untuk menyimpan data dan/atau instruksi yang sedang diproses. Memori ini bersifat sementara, biasanya di gunakan untuk menyimpan data saat di olah ataupun data untuk pengolahan selanjutnya. Secara analogi, register ini dapat diibaratkan sebagai ingatan di otak bila kita melakukan pengolahan data secara manual, sehingga otak dapat diibaratkan sebagai CPU, yang berisi ingatan-ingatan, satuan kendali yang mengatur seluruh kegiatan tubuh dan mempunyai tempat untuk melakukan perhitungan dan perbandingan logika.


  • ALU unit yang bertugas untuk melakukan operasi aritmetika dan operasi logika berdasar instruksi yang ditentukan. ALU sering di sebut mesin bahasa karena bagian ini ALU terdiri dari dua bagian, yaitu unit arithmetika dan unit logika boolean yang masing-masing memiliki spesifikasi tugas tersendiri. Tugas utama dari ALU adalah melakukan semua perhitungan aritmatika (matematika) yang terjadi sesuai dengan instruksi program. ALU melakukan semua operasi aritmatika dengan dasar penjumlahan sehingga sirkuit elektronik yang digunakan disebut adder.Tugas lain dari ALU adalah melakukan keputusan dari suatu operasi logika sesuai dengan instruksi program. Operasi logika meliputi perbandingan dua operand dengan menggunakan operator logika tertentu, yaitu sama dengan (=), tidak sama dengan (¹ ), kurang dari (<), kurang atau sama dengan (£ ), lebih besar dari (>), dan lebih besar atau sama dengan (³ ).ALU sendiri juga masih terbagi menjadi dua komponen utama, yaitu




  1. arithmetic unit (unit aritmatika), bertugas untuk menangani pengolahan data yang berhubungan dengan perhitungan, dan
  2. boolean logic unit (unit logika boolean), bertugas menangani berbagai operasi logika.



  • CPU Interconnections adalah sistem koneksi dan bus yang menghubungkan komponen internal CPU, yaitu ALU, unit kontrol dan register-register dan juga dengan bus-bus eksternal CPU yang menghubungkan dengan sistem lainnya, seperti memori utama, piranti masukan /keluaran.

FUNGSI CPU

Fungsi utama CPU adalah menjalankan program-program yang disimpan di memori utama dengan cara mengambil instruksi-instruksi dari memori utama dan mengeksekusinya satu persatu sesuai dengan alur perintah. Pekerjaan ini dilakukan dalam dua tahapan yaitu membaca instruksi (fetch) dan melaksanakan instruksi tersebut (execute). Proses membaca dan melaksankan ini dilakukan berulang-ulang sampai semua instruksi yang terdapat di memori utama dijalankan atau komputer dimatikan. Proses ini dikenal juga sebagai siklus fetch-eksekusi.

Saat sebuah program dieksekusi, data mengalir dari RAM ke sebuah unit yang disebut dengan bus, yang menghubungkan antara CPU dengan RAM. Data kemudian didekode dengan menggunakan unit proses yang disebut sebagai pendekoder instruksi yang sanggup menerjemahkan instruksi. Data kemudian berjalan ke unit aritmatika dan logika (ALU) yang melakukan kalkulasi dan perbandingan. Data bisa jadi disimpan sementara oleh ALU dalam sebuah lokasi memori yang disebut dengan register supaya dapat diambil kembali dengan cepat untuk diolah. ALU dapat melakukan operasi-operasi tertentu, meliputi penjumlahan, perkalian, pengurangan, pengujian kondisi terhadap data dalam register, hingga mengirimkan hasil pemrosesannya kembali ke memori fisik, media penyimpan, atau register apabila akan mengolah hasil pemrosesan lagi. Selama proses ini terjadi, sebuah unit dalam CPU yang disebut dengan penghitung program akan memantau instruksi yang sukses dijalankan supaya instruksi tersebut dapat dieksekusi dengan urutan yang benar dan sesuai.

CARA KERJA CPU

Saat data dan/atau instruksi dimasukkan ke processing-devices, pertama sekali diletakkan di RAM (melalui Input-storage); apabila berbentuk instruksi ditampung oleh Control Unit di Program-storage, namun apabila berbentuk data ditampung di Working-storage). Jika register siap untuk mdnerima pengerjaan eksekusi, maka Control Unit akan mengambil instruksi dari Program-storage untuk ditampungkan ke Instruction Register, sedangkan alamat memori yang berisikan instruksi tersebut ditampung di Program Counter. Sedangkan data diambil oleh Control Unit dari Working-storage untuk ditampung di General-purpose register (dalam hal ini di Operand-register). Jika berdasar instruksi pengerjaan yang dilakukan adalah arithmatika dan logika, maka ALU akan mengambil alih operasi untuk mengerjakan berdasar instruksi yang ditetapkan. Hasilnya ditampung di Accumulator. Apabila hasil pengolahan telah selesai, maka Control Unit akan mengambil hasil pengolahan di Accumulator untuk ditampung kembali ke Working-storage. Jika pengerjaan keseluruhan telah selesai, maka Control Unit akan menjemput hasil pengolahan dari Working-storage untuk ditampung ke Output-storage. Lalu selanjutnya dari Output-storage, hasil pengolahan akan ditampilkan ke output-devices.
Diagram blok sederhana sebuah CPU

Mouse adalah sebuah alat yang berguna memasukan data ke komputer dan berupa sebuah perintah untuk menggerakan pointer pada komputer.


Keyboard adalah sebuah alat yang berguna memasukan data ke komputer berupa short key, tulisan, huruf, angka maupun simbol.


Cara mengelola informasi di dalam komputer yaitu:
ØInput (Memasukan data)
Ø Process (Data diproses)
Ø Output (Data disampaikan)
Ø Storage (Penyimpanan)
Ø Communication (Komunikasi)

Perangkat Input adalah hardware yang digunakan untuk memasukan data dan instruksi.

Perangkat Output adalah hardware yang digunakan untuk menyampaikan informasi untuk satu atau lebih orang.

Sistem Unit adalah komponen elektronik yang digunakan untuk memproses data.

Komponen utama dalam Motherboard yaitu Memory, Processor, dan VGA.

Media penyimpanan di komputer dapat melalu beberapa alat seperti, Hardisk, Flashdisk, Microchip, CD, DVD maupun Disket.

Keunggulan Komputer adalah bisa untuk menyimpan data, bisa menjadi sarana komunikasi, membuat pekerjaan lebih ringan dan cepat.

Kelemahan Komputer adalah bisa membuat pelanggaran privasi, bisa merusak kesehatan bila terlalu lama di depan komputer, dan juga bisa dibuat untuk hal-hal negatif lainnya.

Dalam media komunikasi melalui komputer, kita juga akan mengenal yang namanya Internet, yang digunakan untuk berbagi informasi, software, aplikasi-aplikasi, maupun data-data tertentu, yang nantinya bisa didapatkan oleh pengguna antar komputer.

World Wide Website (WWW) adalah halaman yang biasanya digunakan sebagai jaringan untuk menghubungkan antar jutaan bisnis, instansi pemerintah, lembaga pendidikan dan individu.

Internet biasanya dipakai para penggunanya untuk berkomunikasi, mencari informasi, berbelanja online, akses bank dan investasi, mencari hiburan, dan juga untuk mendownload data seperti MP3, Movie, dll.

Komputer yang hebat adalah komputer yang mempunyai program dan aplikasi yang terpadu, itu semua tidak lepas dari penciptanya yang biasa disebut Programer.

Programer adalah seseorang yang mengembangkan aplikasi atau sistem perangkat lunak, programer menulis instruksi langsung kepada komputer, sehingga data bisa diolah menjadi sebuah informasi.

Dua jenis komputer yang paling populer yaitu
- PC dan biasanya menggunakan sistem operasi Windows.
- Apple Macintosh dan biasanya menggunakan sistem operasi Macintosh.

Ada juga komputer versi portable, yang biasa disebut dengan Laptop, biasanya lebih kecil dan mudah dibawa kemana-mana, tetapi memiliki harga yang lebih mahal.



National Science Foundation




National Science Foundation (NSF) adalah lembaga pemerintah Amerika Serikat yang mendukung penelitian fundamental dan pendidikan di semua bidang non-medis ilmu pengetahuan dan teknik. Dana NSF sekitar 20 persen dari seluruh penelitian dasar federal didukung dilakukan oleh perguruan tinggi Amerika Serikat dan universitas. Dalam beberapa bidang, seperti matematika, ilmu komputer, ekonomi dan ilmu-ilmu sosial, NSF adalah sumber utama dukungan federal.

Program National Science Foundation ( NSF ) yang diciptakan pada tahun 1997 digunakan untuk menghubungkan 50 situs universitas dan ilmu komputasi.
Yang pertama dari dua program yang didanai NSF adalah National Computational Science Alliance (Aliansi), yang dipimpin oleh National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) di Urbana, Illinois. Program kedua, Kemitraan Nasional Advanced Komputasi Infrastruktur (NPACI) dipimpin oleh San Diego Supercomputer Center di University of California di San Diego.

Pusat Supercomputer :
* The John von Neumann Center di Universitas Princeton.
* San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) di University of California, San Diego,
* Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) di Universitas Carnegie Mellon dan University of Pittsburgh,
* The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) di University of Illinois di Urbana-Champaign,
* Pusat Cornell Teori (CTC) di Universitas Cornell.
Pelopor Teknologi Komputer

Inilah sejarah lahirnya Teknologi Komputer

1642
Blaise Pascal adalah seorang ahli dan matematika Prancis yang di lahirkan pada tahun 1623. Pada tahun 1642, beliau telah merekacipta satu mesin pengiraan Pada tahun 1642, beliau telah merancang satu mesin perhitungan   mekanikal yang pertama mengikut prinsip persepuluhan. mekanis satu menurut prinsip persepuluhan.



1822
Charles Babbage mengemukakan idenya tentang rebuah alat yang dapat membantu manusia dalam melakukan perhitungan yang rumit. Mesinnya yang tidak selesai dibuat saat ini berada di London Museum of Science.




1937
Dr. John V Atanasoff dan Clifford Berry mendesain komputer digital elektronis pertama. Dengan nama ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer). ABC hanya dapat menghitung tambah dan kurang.



1943
Selama Perang Dunia 2, ilmuwan Inggris yang bernama Alan Turing mendesain komputer elektronik khusus untuk tentara Inggris. Digunakan untuk menembus kode pertahanan Jerman.



1944
Howard Hathaway Aiken (american) membuat Mark I. Sebuah komputer hitung digital pertama yang dibuat. Memiliki luas 7,45 kaki x 50 kaki, dengan berat 35 ton. Mark I dapat digunakan untuk menghitung probabilitas.


1945
Dr. John von Neumann menulis konsep penyimpanan data. Saat itu masih berupa ide.



1946
Dr. John W. Mauchly dan J. Presper Eckert, jr. menyelesaikan komputer skala besar yang pertama, diberi nama ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). Dunia mengetahui kedua orang ini sebagai PENEMU KOMPUTER.
ENIAC berbobot 30 ton, terdiri dari 18.000 lampu tabung (transistor ukuran besar), memiliki luas 30 kaki x 50 kaki, memakai tenaga 160.000 watt. Pertama kali komputer ini dinyalakan, seluruh jaringan listrik di Philadelphia mendadak mati.
ENIAC tidak hanya dapat menghitung tambah kurang kali bagi, tapi juga dapat diprogram untuk melakukan proses sederhana. Dibanding Mark I yang hanya dapat menghitung, dapat dilihat bahwa ENIAC adalah KOMPUTER pertama di dunia.





1947
Transistor pertama ditemukan oleh William Shockley, John Bardeen, dan Walter Brattain. Semenjak transistor ditemukan, ukuran komputer semakin mengecil.

Dari history diatas dapat kita simpulkan bahwa yang pertamakali menemukan Komputer (bukan kalkulator) adalah Dr. John W. Mauchly dan J. Presper Eckert, jr. dan waktu itu diberi nama ENIAC.

Adapun juga beberapa orang-orang berjas` yang juga menjadi pelopor dibalik sukses terciptanya sebuah mesin yang dinamakan komputer, hingga sampai komputer modern yang kita gunakan selama ini.
  • Aiken, Howard A.;(1900-73) Harvard Mark I
  • Adams, Henry 1838-1918
  • Alkhowarizmi; mathematics, (2), ancient mathematician, the number 0
  • Allen, Paul; (1953) co founder of Microsoft
  • Amdahl, Gene Myron; (1922- ) computer architect
  • Andreessen, Marc(1971)- co-founder of netscape corporation
  • Andrews, Earnest Galen;(1898-1980)
  • Aristoteles, ; Greek phylosopher
  • Artybasheff, Boris; (1899-1965)
  • Atanasoff, John V.; (1903-1995 ) first electronic computer
  • Atkinson, Bill; hypercard
  • Auerbach, Isaac Levin ; (1921-92)
  • Augusta, Ada Countess of Lovelace , (2); 1816-1852 translating a report from French into to English on a lecture Babbage gave, she added her own lengthy notes to the text, and has been credited with developing the concepts of "loop" and "subroutine".
  • Babaian, Boris A.; (1933) Russian supercomputers
  • Babbage, Charles; (1791-1871) differential machine, analytical machine
  • Bachmann, C.W.; Bachmann diagrammes. (2) (databases)
  • Backus, John W.; (1924 - ) developer of Fortran, (2)
  • Baer, Ralph
  • Bain, Alexander
  • Baird, John Logieinventor of mechanical television, radar and fiber optics
  • Ballmer, Steve; co-founder Microsoft
  • Bardeen, John(1908-1991) co-inventor of the transresistor, or transistor
  • Barlow, John P.; founded EFF with Mitch Kapor.
  • Barron, Ian
  • Barth, Carl George Lange (1860-1939)
  • Bartik, Jean; (1924- ) revamping the ENIAC to be a stored program computer, wrote the code
  • Baum, Lyman Frank (1856-1919)
  • Bech, Niels; (1920-75)
  • Bell, Alexander; telephone
  • Bell, Chester Gordon; (1934 - ) minicomputer developer, (2) (Digital), founded the Computer Museum in Boston with his wife, Gwen
  • Bemer, Bob (Robert William); (1920 - 2005) One of the developers of COBOL and the ASCII naming standard for IBM (1960s); inventor of the ESCape sequence, the universal switching mechanism for all computer-controlled communications
  • Berners-Lee, Tim; (2)developer and promotor of the World Wide Web (www.)
  • Bernouilli; bernouilli numbers, prime numbers
  • Berry, Clifford;(1918-1963) together with John Atanasoff designed the first machines to use electronic techniques in digital calculation
  • Bigelow, Julian; (1913- )
  • Billings, John Shaw; (1839-1913)
  • Bjerknes, Vilhelm; (1862-1951)
  • Blumenthal, William Michael ; (1926- )
  • Blumlein, Alan; invented stereo sound, surround sound
  • Bohr, Niels
  • Bollee, Leon; (1870-1913) ; invented one of the first commercial mechanical calculators small enough to fit on a large tabel.
  • Boole, George; (1815-1864) binairy logics. proposition logic
  • Booth, Andrew Donald ; (1918- ) magnetic drum memories, tried to construct a floppy disk with oxide coated paper.
  • Booch, Grady; co developed UML
  • Boyer, Joseph; (1848-1905)
  • Bradley, David J.
  • Brainerd, John Grist ; (1904-88)
  • Brainerd, Paul; (1947) founder of the Aldus Corp creator of Aldus PageMaker
  • Brattain, Alexander
  • Brattain, Walter; (1902-1987) co-invented the transistor, with John Bardeen and William Shockley
  • Brattain, Shockley en Bardeen; inventors of the transistor; they shared a Nobel Prize in physics in 1956.
  • Braun; astrolabus
  • Braun, Antonius
  • Braun, Ferdinand
  • Bricklin, Daniel, (2) - (1951) inventor of Visicalc spreadsheets, Bob Frankston, wrote the code for Visicalc
  • Briggs, Henry; (1561-1630) logarithm table
  • Brody, Florian T.; groundbreaking work on CD-ROM (1984)
  • Brooks Jr., Frederick Phillips; (1931 - ) Managed the development of the 360 operating system software for IBM (1960s); wrote The Mythical Man-Month about software project managementBrown, Sir Thomas
  • Brown, Gordon S. ; (1907- )
  • Brown, Theodore; (1888-1973)
  • Brown, Thomas
  • Brown, Walter; Co-founder of Atlantic Software, principal contributor to Informatics accounting packages
  • Bryce, James Wares ; (1880-1949)
  • Bush, Vannevar, Vannevar Bush
  • Buerghi, Joseph
  • Burks, Arthur Walter ; (1915- )
  • Burroughs, William Seward; (1855-1898)created and patented a printing adding machine in 1888
  • Bush, Vannevar; (1890-1974)
  • Bushnell, Allen
  • Bushnell, Nolan; creator of Pong
  • Canion, Rod; Insource Technology, co-founder of compaq computers
  • Carpenter, Richard; Founded Index Technology to deliver Case tools in 1983
  • Carr, John Weber ; (1923- )
  • Cary, Frank Taylor ; (1920- )
  • Casselli, Giovanni
  • Cerf, Vinton(1943) co-developed the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) for the Internet
  • Charney, Jule Gregory ; (1917-81)
  • Chatfield, Glenn; Founded Duquesne Systems to provide productivity tools for IBM systems in 1970
  • Chadwick, James; 1847-1922, discovered the neutron, one of the three macro elements of an atom
  • Chernick, Aubrey; Founded Candle Corp. in 1977; developed Omegamon, first realtime performance monitor for MVS
  • Chevion, Dov; (1917-83)
  • Clark, Edith (1883-1959); excelled in breaking down complex mathematical constellations into simple graphical presentations
  • Clark, Jim - co-founder of silicon graphics and netscape corporation, (2) Silicon Graphics and Netscape
  • Cocke, John 1925 - 2002 Chief Architect of the IBM RISC architecture
  • Codd, Dr. Edgar F.; Inventor of relational database theory in the 1970s, received Turing award
  • Gerald Cohen; Designed early non-procedural language; founded Information Builders in 1975
    Colmar, Thomas de; one of the first marketable mechanical calculators
  • Constantine, Larry ; Invented data flow diagrams, presented first paper on concepts of structured design in 1974
  • Cook, Bob; Founded VM Software to develop software for IBM VM in 1981
  • Comrie, Leslie John ; (1893-1950)
  • Cook, Stephen
  • Coombs, Allen W. M.;
  • Copernicus, Nicolaus ; revolutionubus, mathematician and astronomer
  • Corbato, Fernando Jose ; (1926- )
  • Crandall, Rick; Founded Comshare, one of the early time-sharing companies, in 1966; it later became a software company selling executive  support software
  • Cray, Seymour; (1925-1996) Cray supercomputers,also founded the Control Data Corpalong with Eckert, William Norris and six others
  • Christen, Ward; (1); first operational bulletin board
  • Cullinane, John; Founded Cullinane Corp., which sold the IDMS database system, in 1968; it was the first software product company to go public (in 1978)
  • Cunningham, Peter; Founded INPUT, one of the first market research firms to focus on the software and software products market, in 1974
  • Curtiss, John Hamilton ; (1909-77)
  • d'Ocagne, Maurice; (1862-1938)
  • Dahl, Ole-Johan; (1931-2002 ) Simula
  • Davies, Donald W.; packet-switching, internet
  • Dantzig, George Bernard ; (1914- )
  • Davinci, Leonardo; inventor, polymath
  • Deeds, Edward Andrew ; (1874-1960)
  • DeForest, Lee; triode electronic switch
  • DeMarco, Tom; Case methodology pioneer, author and consultant in the 1970s
  • Descartes, Rene; philosopher
  • Dewey, Melvil
  • Dick, Alfred Blake (1856-1934)
  • Dick, Jr., Alfred Blake ; (1894-1954)
  • Diebold, John; (1926- )
  • Dijkstra, Edsger; (1930-2002) computer science, encryption, programming methodology
  • Dorner, Steve; invented Eudora an email package in 1988
  • Dougarty
  • Eastman, George - (2); philanthropist and founder of kodak
  • Eckert, John P. ; (1919-1995) co inventor of one of the first fully electronical digital computer, along with Cray, William Norris and six others, (2) ,(3)
  • Eckert, Wallace John ; (1902-71)
  • Ed, Rob
  • Edison,Thomas Alva; invented the frigidaire and made the lamp commercialy viable
  • Einstein, Albert
  • Eisler, Paul (1907-1995); inventor of the printed circuit (2)
  • Ellis, Jim;(1956-2001) co-created usenet the second most important internet application
  • Ellison, Lawrence (Larry); Co-founded Oracle Corp in 1977; pioneered relational DBMS
  • Engel, Jr., Frank August ; (1917- )
  • Engelbart, Douglas; (2) (1925) - pioneer in human-computer communications, developer of the mouse and graphical user interface, (3)
  • Ershov, Andrei P. (1931-1988); theoretical programming
  • Estridge, Don; (1938-85) projectleader for the IBM PC/XT/AT (1981-1985)
  • Evans, Robert Overton ; (1927- )
  • Everett, Robert Rivers ; (1921- )
  • Fairchild, George Winthrop; (1854-1924)
  • Fano, Robert Mano; (1917- )
  • Fantl. Leo
  • Faraday, Michael
  • Fast, August
  • Feigenbaum, Edward A.(AI)
  • Felstein, Lee; inventor Video Circuit Board, Osborne 1 along with Adam Osborne, Expander Computer, Sol computer
  • Felt, Dorr Eugene ; (1862-1930)
  • Ferguson, Dave; Author, in the late 60's, of PI-Sort, the first software product successfully sold against a free IBM sort program
  • Fischer, Emst Georg (1852-1935)
  • Flanders, Donald Alexander ; (1900-58)
  • Flemming, John mbrose; inventor of the vacuum tube diode
  • Flint, Charles Ranlett; founding father of IBM (l850-1934)
  • Flowers, Thomas;(1905-1998) Colossus engineer
  • Floyd, Robert W. Forrest, Lee de
  • Forrester, Jay Wright; (2) (1918 - ) - inventor of magnetic-core memory, led the team that created Whirlwind
  • Forest, Lee de (1873 - 1961)
  • Forster, James Franklin ; (1908-72)
  • Fourier, Baron Jean-Baptiste-Joseph; (1768-1830); mathematician
  • Frank, Werner; Co-founded Informatics, the company which sold Mark IV, the first million dollar software product, in 1962
  • Bob Frankston, wrote the code for Visicalc
  • Frege, G.
  • Freytag Löringhoff, Dr. Bruno Baron von; reconstructor of Schickards calculator
  • Friedman, William Frederick ; (1891-1969)
  • Fyllstra, Dan; Viscalc the first spreadsheet program
  • Galler, Bernard Aaron; (1928- )
  • Galvin
  • Gates, Jim
  • Gates, Wiiliam H. III (Bill); (1955) one of the founders of Microsoft, DOS, Windows,(2)(see also interview and unofficial information)
  • Geissler Igelshieb, Heinrich
  • Gianello Toriano
  • Geschke, Charles M. founder of Adobe Systems in 1982 who, along with John Warnock, created "the desktop publishing" environment
  • Gill, Stanley; (1926-75)
  • Glushkov, Victor Mikhaylovich ; (1923-82)
  • Goetz, Marty; Co-founded Applied Data Research (ADR) in 1959; received the first patent issued on a software product
  • Goldstine, Herman Heine ; (1913- ) helped design the ENIAC, wrote one of the most complete computer history books.
  • Goldstein,  Bernie; Founded Broadview Associates (1970s), the first investment banking firm to focus on software industry mergers and acquisitions
  • Good, I. J. ;
  • Goodman, Richard; (1911-66)
  • Goodnight, Dr. James; Co-founded SAS Institute in 1976; developer of the SAS System
  • Gore, John K. ; ( 1845- l910)
  • Goto, Eiichi; inventor of the parametron computer
  • Gödel, Kurt
  • Grad, Burt; One of the members of the IBM team which developed the plan for unbundling software from hardware in 1969
  • Grant, George Barnard; (1849-1917)
  • Green, John
  • Green, Julien; (1924- )
  • Grillet, Rene (1600s)
  • Gore ,John K. ( 1845- l910)
  • Goto, Eiichi; inventor of analogue computer
  • Griswold, Ralph E.; (1934- )
  • Grosch, Herb; Director in 1960 of the U.S. government’s Center for Computer Science and Technology (now called NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology)
  • Grove, Andrew, co-founder Intel
  • Groves, Leslie Richard ; (1896-1970)
  • Gudden, John Bernard
  • Hamming, Richard W.;
  • Harris, Dr. Larry; Founded AICorp in 1975; developed AI-based natural language technology
  • Harron, Ducos de;
  • Harris, Peter; Founded ADPAC Corporation in 1963
  • Hartree, Douglas Rayner ; (1897-1958)
  • Hawking, Stephen;
  • Hazen, Harold Locke ; (1901-80)
  • Heisenberg, Werner;
  • Hell, Rudolf (1901-2002); inventor of fax machine
  • Henry, Joseph;
  • Herbrand, Jacques;
  • Heron of Alexandria; Greek mechanician and inventor
  • Herschel, John;
  • Herz, Heinrich;
  • Hewlett, William R.; (1913) co-founder of Hewlett Packard,(2)
  • Hill, Richard; Co-founded Informatics, the company which sold Mark IV, the first million dollar software product, in 1962
  • Hills, Danny
  • Hoare, C. A. R.; (CSP)
  • Hoerni, Jean;
  • Hoff, Ted; (1937) co-developer of the microprocessor, see also W.D. Pickette, Ray Holt
  • Holberton, Betty (1927) one of a team of 5 programmers on the ENIAC
  • Hollerith, Herman, (2) (1860-1929) tabulator machine
  • Holt, Ray (19..) invented central processor in 1971 - as member of a team for the F14A, see also W.D. Pickette, Hoff, Ted
  • Hopper, Grace; (1906-1992) Created together with other engineers COBOL, Naval officer and computer scientist who led the effort in the 1960s to develop COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language)
  • Hoover, Bill; President from 1964 to 1995 of Computer Sciences Corp. (CSC) which was an early entrant (late 1960s) in the software products market; it ultimately became a multi-billion dollar software services company
  • Househoulder, Alston Scott ; (1904-1993)
  • Huffman, David A.; Discovered a fast and efficient method of compression
  • Hull, Clark; (1884-1952)
  • Hurd, Cuthbert C.; (1911- )
  • Huskey, Harry Douglas ; (1916- )
  • Hyatt, Gilbert; co-inventor of the microprocessor in 1968, patent awarded in 1990
  • Ichbiah, Dr. Jean; Principal designer, Ada language (1977)
  • Imlay, John; In 1971, became CEO of Management Science America (MSA), the first applications software supplier to exceed $100M in annual revenues
  • Iverson, Kenneth E.; invented APL in 1962
  • Irvine, John;
  • Iwatani, Toru; Inventor of Pac Man video game
  • Jacobs, Walter W.; (1914-82)
  • Jaquard, Joseph Marie; (1752-1834) French weaver who built a fully automated loom programmed by punched cards.
  • Jaquet-Droz, Pierre en Henry; (1700s) punch card weaving
  • Jerger, Doug; Co-founder of Fortex, an early accounting software products company
  • Jevons, William Stanley; (1835-82)
  • Johnson, Luanne James; Founded Argonaut Information Systems to sell payroll and accounts payable software in 1971
  • Jobs, Steven Paul ; (1955- ) co founded Apple and founded Next
  • Johnson, Reynold B. ; (1906- )
  • Jones, Fletcher (deceased); Co-founder of Computer Sciences Corp. (CSC); one of the initiators of SHARE and the SHARE Operating System (SOS)
  • Jones, T. Capers ; Developed first large-scale estimating package for IBM (1972)
  • Jones, Dr. Kirk; Pioneered business planning software; principal designer of IFPS (1975)
  • Josephson, Brian D.; Josephson switch, hyper speed switching on molecular/atomaire level
  • Kapor, Mitch ; (1950- ) developer of Lotus 1-2-3 along with Jonathan Sachs, and founded the Lotus Development Corp. in 1982, Kapor Enterprises
  • Karmanos, Peter; Founded Compuware in 1973; developer of IBM systems software, along with Thomas Thewes, Allen B. Cutting
  • Katch, David (deceased); Co-founded Boole & Babbage in 1967; pioneered performance management software
  • Katz, Charles; (1927- )
  • Katz, Philip; (1963 -2000) Inventor of PKZip
  • Kay, Andy; KAYPRO
  • Kay, Alan; inventor of smalltalk and dynabook, a visionair in computing
  • Keet, Lee; Co-founded turnkey systems, inc., which sold Taskmaster, one of the first telecommunications monitors, in 1967
  • Kemeny, John G. (1926-1992) co-developer along with Thomas Kurtz, of the programming language BASIC and  founder of true basic corporation in 1964
  • Kempelen, Wolfgang von; (1734-1804)
  • Kepler, Johannes ; astronome who corresponded with Schickard about a calculator
  • Kernighan, Brian W ; developed with Ritchie Unix en C, co-invented Awk (1977)
  • Kilby, Jack Sinclair, (2) (1923) co-inventor of the integrated circuit at Texas Instruments independently and at the same time as Robert Noyce did this at Fairchild Semiconductor; Along with Jerry D. Merryman and James Van Tassel, Kilby helped invent the first electronic handheld calculator by adapting the integrated circuit.
  • Kilburn, Tom ; invented the binary adder
  • Kildall, Gary; (2) (1942-1994 ) creator of cp/m operating system for Digital Research
  • Kinsberger, Jack van; Member of IBM’s 360 operating system design team in 1967; technical VP at Boole & Babbage
  • Knuth, Donald Ervin(1938- ) author, mathematician, computer scientist and pioneer researcher on  compilers, attribute grammars, algorithms and digital typography, (2) (TeX) , a seven volume series on "The Art of Programming"
  • Kolence, Ken; Co-founded Boole & Babbage in 1967; pioneered performance management software
  • Kubie, Elmer; Founded Computer Usage Company, the world’s first computer software company, with John W. Sheldon in March, 1955
  • Kurtz, Thomas E. ; (1928) co-developer (Kemeny) of BASIC programming language in 1964 and  co-founder of true basic corporation
  • Kurtzig, Sandra; Founded Ask Computer Systems in 1971; introduced first multiterminal mini-based MRP system
  • Lake, Clair D. ; (1888-1958) one of the co-inventors of the Harvard-IBM MARK I
  • Lamport, Leslie
  • Lampson, Butler; (1943-) pioneer on operating systems
  • Landry, John; Led McCormick & Dodge development team in release of Millennium environment (1983)
  • Lanier, Jaron - computer scientist, artist and musician
    Learn, Dale; Co-founded Information Science, Inc. (InSci), which sold payroll and human resources software, in 1965
  • Langefors, Borje; (1915- )
  • Lebedev, Sergei A. 1902-1974; MESM computer, Ukraine
  • Lecht, Charles  (deceased); Pioneered compiler technology, founded Advanced Computer Techniques in 1962
  • Lehmer, Derrick Henry ; (1905-91)
  • Lehovec, Kurt
  • Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm von;(1646-1716) the first to discuss the binary system
  • Lenat, Doug
  • DaVinci, Leonardo (1452-1519) Polymath in the 15/16th century whom invented presumably the first calculating machine
  • Levin, Leonid
  • Licklidder, Joseph C.R. (1914-1990) instrumental in the construction of the internet (ARPA)
  • Lovelace, Augusta Ada Countess of , (2); 1816-1852 translating a report from French into to English on a lecture Babbage gave, she added her own lengthy notes to the text, and has been credited with developing the concepts of "loop" and "subroutine".
  • Lowry, Dave; Founded Data Design Associates to sell accounts payable software in 1973.
  • Ludd, Edward; Alledgedly tried to destroy engines and kind to prevent loss of job
  • Ludgate, Percy E.; (1883-1922)
  • Lukoff, Herman; (1923-79)
  • Lull, Ramon (1235-1315)
  • Lyons, Mike; Software re-engineering pioneer; co-founded Catalyst Corp. in 1979
  • Machover, Carl ; Pioneer in graphics and image processing techniques and consultant to CAD and CAM companies
  • Maguire, John ; Founded Software AG in 1971; it sold the Adabas database system in the U.S.
  • Mandelbrot, Benoit; Discovered a way to create a complete graphical image with mathematical formulas, (2)
  • Mannhein, Amedee
  • Marconi, Guglielmo; Telegraph system
  • Markowitz, Harry ; In the early 1960s, co-founded California Analysis Centers, Inc. (CACI) which developed Symscript, one of the earliest software products
  • Markkula, A.C. "Mike" Former Intel executive who invested in Apple early on, essentially becoming a third partner to Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs.
  • Martin, James; Founded Information Engineering approach
  • Marquand, Allan; (1853-1924)
  • McCarthy, John (1927- ) co-inventor of artificial intelligence and LISP,  (2) (AI) 1958
  • McCluskey, Edward J.; developed the Quine-McCluskey method for logic minimization
  • McNealy, Scott; co founder of SUN
  • Morse, Samuel ; inventor of morse alfabeth and electrical telegraph
  • Marquand, Allan ; (1853-1924) logic computers
  • Matthaeus, Philip
  • Mauchly, John William, (2) (1907-1980) created with J. Presper Eckert and a 50 member team the first electronic large scale, general purpose calculator, known as the ENIAC.
  • Mauchly, John V.;
  • Mead, Carver
  • Meagher, Ralph Ernest ; (1917- )
  • Menabrea, L.F.
  • Metcalfe, Bob - (1946) inventor of ethernet and founder of 3com corporation
  • Metropolis, Nicholas C. ; (1915- )
  • Michie, Donald;
  • Milner, Robin (LCF, ML and CCS)
  • Millard, William;
  • Mills, Harlan
  • Miner, Robert (Bob)  (1942-1994); Co-founded Oracle Corp. in 1977; pioneered relationship DBMS
  • Miner, Jay (1932-1994); was responsible for the development of the "Amiga", along with RJ Mical, Dave Morse and Carl Sassenrath.
  • Minsky, Marvin Lee; (1927- ); pioneer in Artificial Intelligence.
  • Mock, Owen; first operating system
  • Moers, Calvin;
  • Moore, Gordon E.; (1929- )
  • Morganthaler, Gary; Pioneered relational DBMS market in the 1970s; while at UC/Berkeley, developed Ingres; co-founded Relational Technology
  • Morland, Samuel (1625-95)
  • Molnar, Charles E.
  • Morse, Samuel;
  • Muller, Joseph
  • Muuss_mike (19nn-2000); creator of "ping" , tccp and CAD solid modeling.
  • Napier, John; (1550-1617) 'Napier Bones', logarithms
  • Naur, Peter; (1928- )
  • Needham, Roger ( 1935-2003); pioneer in operating systems, time sharing systems, memory protection, local area networks and distributed systems.
  • Negroponte, Nicholas;
  • Nelson, Ted; (1937) inventor of hypertext, originator of project Xanadu
  • Neumann, John von; (1903-57) computer architecture, (2),(3)
  • Newell, Allen; (1927-92)
  • Newton, Isaac
  • Newman, M.A.H.;
  • Noorda, Ray; Noorda Family Trust, Father of the PC LAN
  • Norman Nie; Pioneered statistical analysis programming in 1965; founded SPSS (1975)
  • Norris, William (1911) co-founder of control data corporation
  • Noyce, Robert N. (2) (1927 - 1990) co-inventor of the microchip and founder of fairchild semiconductor and intel corporations
  • Nutt, Roy  (deceased); Co-founder of Computer Sciences Corp. (CSC)
  • Nygaard, Kristen; (1926-2002)
  • Odhner, Willgodt Theophil (1845-1905); developed a very succesful table calculator in use until the early 1980's
  • Øersted, Hans Christian (1777-1851); discovery of the unity of electricity and magnetism — electromagnetism.
  • Ohl, Russel (1975) inventor of photo voltaic cell
  • Olliver, Bernard; (1916-1995) Founder of Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in the early 1950's who directed its research for approximately 30 years.
  • Olsen, Kenneth Harry; (1926 - ) member of Whirlwind team, founder of DEC, (2)
  • Opel, John R.; (1925- )
  • Oppenheimer, Robert ; mathematician and one of the scientists producing the atom bombsdropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan in 1945
  • Orr, Ken; Founded Ken Orr & Assoc.; developed Case methodology in the 1970s
  • Osborne, Adam - (1939-2003 ) inventor of portable computers, Osborn I
  • Oughtred, William
  • Packard, David; (1912-1996 ) co-founder of Hewlett Packard, (2)
  • Paper, Seymour; designed the LOGO computer language as a learning tool for children.(1967)
  • Page, Peter; Developed Software AG’s Natural, pioneered 4GLS (1979)
  • Pascal, Blaise, (2); (1623-1666) phylosopher, mathematician and inventor of the pascaline
  • Pasta, John R.; (1918-81)
  • Pastore, Annibale; (1868-1936)
  • Paterson, Tim; (1956-) Original developer of DOS for PC's
  • Patterson, John Henry; (1844-1922) founder of NCR
  • Patrick, Bob; develops first operating system
  • Peddle, Chuck
  • Perot, H. Ross ;
  • Pickette, Wayne D.; inventor of the principle of the CPU on a chip
  • Pinkerton, John
  • Planck, Max
  • Poel, William Louis van der; (1926- )
  • Porter, Andrew;
  • Postley, John; Developed Mark IV (1967), the first million dollar software product, for Informatics
  • Postel, Jonathan (Internet)
  • Proulx, Merle; Author of Uccel’s DB4 DBMS and UCC COBOL (1974)
  • Pugh, Emerson W.; (1929- )
  • Rabin, Michael
  • Rajchman, John; (1911-89)
  • Ramo, Simon; (1913- )
  • Rand, James Henry ; (1886-1968)
  • Randell, Brian; (1936- )
  • Raskin, Jef (1943–2005); human-computer interface expert best-known for starting the Macintosh project for Apple Computer in the late 1970s.
  • Rees, Mina Spiegel ; (1902- )
  • Ritchie, Dennis M.;  (1941); developed in the early 1970s with Kernigan Unix(3) en C (2) - developed the UNIX computer operating system, C was devised as a system implementation language for the nascent Unix operating system.
  • Ridenour, Louis; (1911-59)
  • Roberts, H. Edward; with three friends, founded the Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the company soon introduced the Altair
  • Rock, Arthur; co-founder Intel, primary funder Fairchild
  • Roberts, Larry; (1937) considered "the father of the internet"
  • Rosen, Saul; (1922-91)
  • Ross, Douglas; Developed Automatically Programmed Tools (1958), paving the way for computer-aided manufacturing
  • Rothrie, Dr. James B.; Developed distributed database technology at Computer Corp. of America (1976)
  • Rowe, Lawrence; Pioneered relational DBMS market in the 1970s; while at UC/Berkeley, developed Ingres; co-founded Relational Technology
  • Rutherford, Ernest
  • Sall, John; Co-founded SAS Institute in 1976; developer of the SAS System
  • Sammet, Jean; (1928- ) Early language compiler programmer; author of a book on history of computer languages, she was the first female president of ACM
  • Sassenrath, Carl; one of the designers of the Amiga OS
  • Scheutz, Georg Pehr; (1785-1873) (2)Difference Engine, Sweden
  • Scheutz, Edvard,(1785-1873) Sweden(2)Difference Engine modelled after Babbage's designs, Sweden with Edvard Raphael (1821-1881)
  • Schickard, Wilhelm (1592-1635)
  • Schott, Gaspard (1608-66)
  • Schrayer, Michael; electric pencil, first word processor
  • Schreyer, Helmut; (1912-1984) helped Konrad Zuse design and build his electro-mechanical computers
  • Shannon, Claude Elwood; (1916- 1999) digital design systems; (2) - computer pioneer, (3) information theory
  • Shaw, Cliff J.; (1922-91)
  • Shaw Billings, John Shaw ; (1839-1913)
  • Shockley, William Bradford; (1910-1989) British co-inventor of the transistor, with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three shared a nobel prize in physics in 1956.
  • Sholes, Christopher; 5.25" disk
  • Shugart, Alan; 5.25" disk; (2) - co-founder of seagate technology corporation
  • Simon, Herbert Alexander ; (1916-2001) pioneer in Artificial Intelligence
  • Sinclair, Clive (1940-); invented the ZX80, the price of computers dropped below $100 (1) (personal computers)
  • Sippl, Roger J.; Founded Informix in 1980; developed DBMS application tools
  • Skoll, Jeff; first full time employee and first president of eBay, an auction site
  • Slutz, Ralph J.;
  • Smith, Burton
  • Stallman, Richard (1953-);  Open Source Software, the GNU project
  • Stanhope, Charles 3rd earl of
  • Stibitz, George Robert ; (2) (1914-1995) computernetworks, datacommunication, used Boolean logic to add, subtract, multiply, and divide complex numbers. This Complex Number calculator, completed in 1939, provided the foundation for digital computers
  • Stonebraker, Michael; Pioneered relational DBMS market in the 1970s; while at UC/Berkeley, developed Ingres; co-founded Relational Technology
  • Stroustrup, Bjarne (1950), invented the C++ programming language
  • Sutherland, Ivan (1938-); electronics engineer, computer graphics and virtual reality pioneer, (2) (graphics)
  • Strachey, Christopher; 1916-75) denotational semantics
  • Svoboda, Antonin; (1907-80)
  • Tarjan, Robert
  • Tarski, Alfred; ( 1901-I983)
  • Teal, Gordon; (1907) transistor, perfected a way of making transistors out of silicate, one of the most common elements, instead of using germanium, which is expensive
  • Tesla, Nikola; (1856-1943) Tesla coils, umpty inventions with electricity, a modern day Leonardi da Vinci
  • Thompson, Kenneth (1943-) , (2)Unix
  • Tompson, Joseph John,
  • Tramiel, Jack; Commodore PET, the C64 computer a multimillion seller
  • Torres y Quevedo, Leonardo; (1852-1936)
  • Torvalds, Linus(2) (Linux organisation)
  • Trevisa
  • Treybig, Jimmy; Founder of Tandem computers
  • Turing, Alan Mathison; (1912-1954) Treatise on On computable numbers, (2) (Colossus and code-breaking)
  • Ulam, Stanley M.;
  • Utman, Richard; (1926- )
  • Verea, Ramon; (1838-99)
  • Veit, Stan; (1919-) Pioneer in the PC arena, setting up one of the first computer outlets in the US, publisher
  • Viehe, F.W.; core memory
  • Volta, Allessandro; electrical current
  • Wall, Larry (); developer of programming language Perl, playing a vital role in or for the internet.
  • Wang, An; (1920-1990) Magnetic Core Memory, (2)
  • Wang, Charles ; Founded Computer Associates (1975), first software company to exceed $500M
  • Ware, Willis Howard ; (1920- )
  • Warnock, John E.; invented Post-Script PDL (Page Description Language) a major factor leading to the desktop publishing revolution. He and Charles Geschke were the founders of Adobe Systems
  • Watt, James; improved and made the steam engine multi purpose
  • Watson, Bill; Founded Software International to sell general ledger software (early 1970s)
  • Watson, Thomas John ; (1874-1956) president of the International Business Machines (IBM) Corp. who built up the company during WWII and also invested in Howard Aiken's plan to build the Harvard MARK I calculator
  • Watson, Jr., Thomas John ; (1914-1992) He took over his father's position as president of IBM in 1952, convinced that the company should build and market computers. He eventually led the company to having total domination of the computer market
  • Werner, Lee<.a>;
  • Weizenbaum, Joseph; (1923- )
  • Wheeler, David John ; (1927-2004)
  • Wiberg, Martin; (1826-1905)
  • Wiener, Norbert; (1894-1964) mathematician, pioneer of cybernetics and artificial intelligence
  • Wijngaarden, Arie van; (1933-87)
  • Wilkes, Maurice; (1913- ) (2) (EDSAC) EDSAC 2
  • Williams, Hugh; One of the members of the IBM team which developed the plan for unbundling software from hardware in 1969
  • Wilkinson, J.H. numerical analysis
  • Williams, Frederic Calland; (1911-1977) RAM - Williams Tube (CRT), (2)
  • Wirth, Niclaus; (1934) Pascal, Modula-2 programming languages, (2) Oberon an object oriented operating system
  • Wolfram, Stephen (Mathematica)
  • Wong, Eugene; Pioneered relational DBMS market in the 1970s; while at UC/Berkeley, developed Ingres; co-founded Relational Technology
  • Woodger, Michael;
  • Wooldridge, Dean Everett ; (1913- )
  • Wozniak, Stephen,(1950- ) (2), (3), co founder of Apple
  • Yamachita, Hideo (1899-1993); Japanese engineer considered the father of Japan's computer industry. He led the team in 1950 that created Japan's first large electronic computer, the Tokyo Automatic Calculator (TAC), with vacuum tubes
  • Yourdon, Ed; Developed the concept of structured programming, Case methodologies (1976)
  • Zemanek, Heinz; (1920- )
    Zuse, Konrad,(1910-1995) (2)(3) , inventor of Z1 - Z4 wartime computers with binary arithmatic

Bagi kalian yang masih penasaran, kalian juga bisa lihat history komputer dari tahun ke tahun, klik disini.

Source:
Mbah Google
Wikipedia
Yatno Site
Blognya Iman
Yahoo Answers
thocp.net


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3 comments

Tulis comments
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13 Oktober 2010 13.00

Nice Blog..... tapi jika ingin menambah ilmu soal komputer boleh mampir ke blogku di jamin ilmu nya nambah seh....^_^

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27 Desember 2010 21.22

mantap.
thanks kk,, visit my placeplease...

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16 Januari 2011 14.35

A good source of History

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